I don’t think it’s quite accurate to say that before Freud, people thought women didn’t enjoy sex. That was very much a mid-Victorian construct. Prior to the Age of Repression there was plenty of literature showing quite the contrary (Fanny Hill, Moll Flanders, Les Liaisons Dangereuses, etc.), not to mention the evident sensuality of Chaucer’s female characters (the Wife of Bath, Alison from the Miller’s Tale).
When we go back to the Romans there’s no shortage of evidence that women were understood to be highly sexual creatures. Saturnalia was a very public affirmation of this fact.
Meanwhile Freud was hardly forward-thinking, with his creation of a baroque psychiatric myth to replace the holy trinity of christian mythology and his insistence on the need to avoid “immature” clitoral orgasms etc.
It’s very important not to extrapolate too far from contemporary US sexual moeurs, which continue to be unusually repressed relative to other OECD nations. While the literature of the New World is indeed largely devoid of any recognition of female sexuality, the same is certainly not true of other literary traditions.