Thanks for an interesting article, Beth. One aspect that seems to be missing, however, is the actions of the child. Your article appears to assume that it's always the result of parental action/inaction that triggers an estrangement. My own observation is that quite often estrangement arises out of the child's own inner problems, and not infrequently because the child is unwilling to process their own emotions and behaviors. It's just so much easier to blame someone else, and who better to blame than a parent? I've seen children reject their parents for the most trivial reasons; meanwhile other children stay attached to parents through all manner of tribulations. In the end, everyone is born with their own character and that determines to a large extent how we deal with the challenges life faces us. Which means that sometimes it's not really anything to do with the parent at all, and everything to do with the child.