Thanks for an interesting essay, Andre. Perhaps it would have been even more effective to have distinguished between target-indiscriminate riots and target-specific violence? For example, after Mandela came to power in South Africa and began to dismantle the Apartheid power structures, a group of armed Boer white supremacists marched through Johannesburg. Conflict ensued with a largely-black police force (instigated by the Boer marchers) during which one Boer, who'd been threatening officers both verbally and with his rifle, fell to the ground. He was shot and killed by a black policeman. That visual signal did more than any other single thing to dispel the myth of white invulnerability; there were no further Boer marches. By extension, one must wonder if it would be more effective to direct violence against those perpetrating it than to simply burn cars and loot businesses, thereby very often harming those who have committed no offence whatsoever.

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